Sunday, March 15, 2020

Complete Guide on How to Write a Logistics Essay Coherently

Complete Guide on How to Write a Logistics Essay Coherently Writing a logistics essay is one of many other assignments students need to write if they want to hold a degree. They have this writing assignment because it helps them to understand the key principles of transporting things such as goods to the place where they are needed. Besides, this type of essay can be required not only of those who major in Logistics, but also of those who study Business Management, Supply Chain Management, or even Business Technology since these fields may include the rapid transportation of products as an effective strategy of running a business. So what to do if you’re assigned with logistics essay writing? Keep calm! Yes, you’ll need to make considerable efforts to achieve the desired result an A/A+ paper. Different aspects of logistics can be offered you to write on in your essay. Logistics learns the processes of organizing product distribution and creating plans that ensure effective product placement. Besides, you can draw on international and domestic transportation, shipping, and logistics systems. A significant number of students from different directions should write this type of essay with the aim of strengthening their skills in logistics and inventory management. What is more, since the logistics essay is one of the forms of academic essay, you should strictly follow its structure to receive a high mark. In the meantime, know: How to choose a topic relevant for your essay writing; What types of essays exist in the academic field; How to get started writing a logistics essay, etc. How to Choose a Topic So That It Will Be Interesting to Write on This part of writing a logistics essay is very important because the success of the entire paper depends on a topic you choose. It can be explained by the fact that if you select a broad topic, your essay will be too general. Therefore, you should choose the topic for your logistics essay carefully. Usually, your professor may provide you with a list of topics. Alternatively, you have to choose a good logistics essay topic on your own. The following fields of logistics are appropriate for your future essay: Supply chain strategy; Global transportation; Warehouse management; Materials handling; International logistics; The topic of your essay should correspond to your level of knowledge. For instance, if you choose to describe the central principles of logistics, you have to present the basic concepts of product distribution, methods of transportation, and traffic management techniques. Besides, you can also draw on protective packaging, inventory control, and customer service. On the contrary, if you select warehouse management as the topic for your logistics essay, you will have to show how to manage changing logistics systems or how to implement changes in order to create a more efficient process. As a result, one may state that the second topic is much more complicated than the first one, and as a consequence, it requires much more efforts in order to precisely cover all its aspects. Moreover, there is a method that is likely to help you to choose a topic for your essay brainstorming, which is a multifunctional technique that can not only assist you in selecting a topic, but will also help you organize and plan the entire essay. The central idea of this technique is to get as many thoughts as possible down on the paper with the help of timed writing sessions. In general, in order to save time, you may organize your ideas using a list or bullet points. When you have been just assigned to write a logistics essay, you start thinking about possible topics, and therefore, you should start brainstorming in that second. When you have finished writing your ideas, you have to peruse the list of ideas and choose the most interesting of them. What Types of Essay You Can Be Asked to Deal with Before you start writing the essay, you have to select the manner of presentation of the selected topic. Since there are plenty of essay types, the information can be conveyed in different ways. Commonly, there are four types of logistics essay, in particular descriptive, definition, compare/contrast, and argumentative. 1. Descriptive Logistics Essays This type of essay requires you to describe the concept, method, or strategy of the selected subject. Therefore, you should create a written account of a certain experience. If you choose â€Å"International logistics† as your topic, you should describe the concept of international logistics, and as a consequence, you may draw on general ideas of the system that manages the forward and reverse movement of materials into, through, and out of an international organization. Hence, you should describe each detail of the process mentioned before using a list-like description in order to demonstrate each point. In addition, you can present this system by using the example of some companies that supply their products across the border. As a result, the central idea of this type of essay is to present as many details as possible. 2. Definition Logistics Essays The definition logistics essay should define the term, concept, or method within the field of logistics by providing a personal commentary of what the particular matter means. Therefore, you should recognize the subject’s key aspects in order to start writing definition logistics essay. For example, if you want to define material handling, you should claim that it is the protection, movement, control, and storage of products and materials throughout production, storing, distribution, consumption, and annihilation. In addition, you can define each process mentioned earlier. That is why this type of essay should be accurately detailed and well-explained. 3. Comparison/Contrast Logistics Essays If you select the warehouse management as the topic subject for the comparison/contrast logistics essay, you may describe the warehouse management in different companies or countries. Therefore, at first, you have to identify and explain at least three primary points two or more companies/countries have in common. Furthermore, you should demonstrate the similarities and differences between the selected points. It means that you have to investigate the warehouse management of all selected companies or countries to provide the reader with relevant and accurate information. Consequently, this type of essay requires in-depth research so that you could be able to support your arguments accurately. 4. Argumentative Logistics Essays The primary aim of this type of essay is to investigate a topic with the help of collection, generation, and evaluation of evidence, and therefore, at the end of the argumentative essay, you should establish a position on the topic in a concise way. The argumentative logistics essay requires extensive research in order to support each point clearly. For example, if you choose global transportation as the topic for your logistics essay, you may investigate its advantages and disadvantages to suggest some probable improvements. Hence, when you present an argument, you should support it with the help of study or research. Besides, you may conduct an empirical research by collecting data through interviews, observations, surveys, and even experiments. If you choose to perform your own research, you will receive priceless experience and investigate the topic deeper. However, you should inform the professor of your intentions in order to prevent any misunderstanding. Despite the fact that all of the types of essay mentioned before are different, all of them have some common features and requirements. For example, you have to use a clear and concise language while writing the essay. It means that you should choose the words carefully considering their relevance to describe the object accurately. Furthermore, you should avoid using personal pronouns because it is not appropriate in an academic essay. In addition, each of the essays presented above has a particular structure, which consists of an Introduction, Main Body, and Conclusion. How to Start Writing the Logistics Essay The earlier you start writing, the better result you will receive the truth checked by many real professionals in writing. You may apply the technique which is called brainstorming. With the help of this technique, you will be able to collect all your ideas. Apart from that, when you have finished creating the list of ideas, you should outline the entire paper. Consequently, you will know what to write in each paragraph. As a result, if you apply at least these two techniques, your further writing process will be much easier and faster. How to Structure the Logistics Essay Properly As it was mentioned before, each type of essay has the same structure, which consists of an introduction, main body, and conclusion. However, each essay has its peculiarities; for example, an argumentative logistics essay should contain the bare facts, which are supported by study or research. What is more, each argument has to be described in detail in order to present the selected topic accurately. Usually, an argumentative essay consists of five paragraphs, such as an introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs with some evidence, and a logical conclusion. However, the professor may ask you to write a long argumentative essay to check your understanding of the selected topic. Additionally, you may have to discuss the credibility of selected sources and present various viewpoints on the issue before concluding the essay. Hence, different types of essay have some distinct peculiarities, which have to be considered while choosing the type of logistics essay writing. Title Is What Your Logistics Essay Starts with A compelling title is important because it is the first point that every reader looks at. Therefore, you have to create a title which will represent the topic of the logistics essay to the fullest extent. The following titles are good examples. If you want to choose â€Å"International logistics† as your topic, stick to the next possible titles for essays: The Key Principles of International Logistics That Differ from Local Logistics International Logistics Strategies: What Is the Most Effective for the Globalized World? The United States Logistics Channels: Frequency of Access The Key International Logistics Stages Are Essential to Pass Through; Moreover, you can make your logistics essay more specific if you focus on a particular country or region. Introduction Comes First an an Important Part to Attract the Reader The central purpose of this part in an essay is to present the background information on the selected topic. Besides, it should grab the readers’ attention and increase the interest to read the essay to the end. In general, the introductory paragraph should not be long and detailed. Its name suggests that it only introduces the topic to the reader. If you choose â€Å"Description of the International Logistics Stages† as a title of your essay, the reader expects to find what stages you’re going to describe. You are not allowed to use any in-text citations in this paragraph. Apart from that, you have to create a thorough thesis statement to expand it further with the help of supporting details. It is one of the most significant elements of the essay since it presents the arguments that you will justify in the main body. Therefore, the introduction should present the central focus of the essay, outline its content, and state the thesis. Main Body of Your Essay Is a Big Deal It is not less important to come up with a well-developed main part than to write a good introduction. Its main purpose is to support the thesis statement mentioned in the introduction. In this part of the logistics essay, you have to present various stages of the international logistics in detail. Moreover, you can demonstrate the viewpoints of different logistics experts to describe the matter from various perspectives. As it was mentioned before, this part of the essay should contain at least three paragraphs. Therefore, three strong arguments should be presented and supported by in-depth research in every main paragraph. What is more, each of those paragraphs should include a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. Unlike the introductory paragraph, you are allowed and even encouraged to apply various sources of information to support your arguments precisely. Apart from that, you should use different linking words to make your paper coherent and cohesive . Conclusion to End Logically Your Logistics Essay The concluding part of the logistics essay should restate the thesis statement and summarize the main ideas expressed in the body. While writing the argumentative logistics essay, for instance, you have to list all arguments briefly. It is the last chance to convince the reader. Same as in the introducing paragraph, you are not allowed to use in-text citations as well as present new information. How to Refine the Logistics Essay The best way to hone your logistics essay is to read it again and again to the effect that you can say, â€Å"It sounds and look pretty well†. It would be better if you reread the essay in a few days. That way, it would help you to look at the essay content from a fresh perspective. It means that you will be able to spot more possible mistakes. Therefore, you have to start writing your essay beforehand in order to have enough time for proofreading. However, most students (you may be no exception) tend to procrastinate till the last minute. Luckily, it is not just you who can read out your paper quickly and professionally. This another person is supposed to have the strong writing and proofreading skills. You may ask your friends or even parents to read your essay to understand whether it is coherent and cohesive. If you doubt in your or someone’s proofreading skills, take or suggest taking the test. Don’t be afraid of asking an outside person whether the overall essay is interesting and easy to read. By doing so, you can add some additional examples to make it better or specific. Consequently, if you apply most of these recommendations, you will be able to eliminate most of mistakes made by an average student. Be an excellent student in your college!

Thursday, February 27, 2020

TLMT313 WEEK 4 FORUM Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TLMT313 WEEK 4 FORUM - Assignment Example The intervention measure for removing oil spills was difficult for the government, as the treatment procedure i.e. ‘in-situ burning’ has negative impact on environment. Finally, skimmers are engaged into the task to remove the oil through the use of sorbents in order to trace the left spills. With regard to adverse effect of it in the ecosystem, it was noticed that the pelicans becomes black due to it, fish belly-up with brown sludge and the turtles were noticed to wash up on beaches. However, this spill does not have a major impact over the global oil pricing, as Mexico was not the key producer of oil. However, with an immediate impact of such an unexpected event, the government of the US was highly concerned regarding public health and significantly, adopted different preventive measures for mitigating such incident and loss in future. In this regard, ‘The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’ offered safety measures and advices to the Gulf Coast res idents including the workers involved in the relief program to take precautionary measure and physical examination of toxicity tests on dispersants (The Ocean Portal Team,

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Faith, religion and theology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Faith, religion and theology - Essay Example The theme of equality before God is evident in the case young blind man. According to the Jews, the blind man’s condition is attributed to some curse excluding him as a valuable member of the society, the Samaritan woman gives Jesus who is Jews water against their norms showing the theme of love beyond boundaries. 4. The heresy refers to violations of important religious teachings. It is the rejection of the teachings of the Catholic Church. It says that denying any of the doctrines that are the teachings of Christ is to deny the faith of Christ. Irenaeus of Lyons was opposed to heretics because the knowledge of the apostles came after the resurrection of Christ and the baptism in the Holy Spirit. 5. Synoptic gospels are Mark, Luke, and Mathew since they have similar stories and sequence. The synoptic problems refer to the question of the precise nature of their literary relationship. It seeks to address what order the synoptic was written and did the authors of the latter tex ts use the earlier gospels as directed by their literary sources. The Marcan priority views that the gospel of Mathew and Luke used gospel mark a hypothetical document Q as their source.This shows that Mark was written first and then Mathew and Luke was extracted primarily from it. The synoptic gospels are similar to each other, but each still contains its uniqueness. This is known as the triple tradition. The double problem is the passages shared between Mathew and Luke, which comprises of parables and sayings.

Friday, January 31, 2020

Abercrombie and Fitch report Essay Example for Free

Abercrombie and Fitch report Essay Abercrombie Fitch was established in 1892, and originally was a retailer of outdoor and sporting goods. In 1976, it went bankrupted and was acquired by Limited Brands in 1988. Michael Jeffries was nominated to become CEO in 1992, and he dramatically improved the status of AF to be a global fashion retailer. Now the symbol of American style and beloved brand by many customers worldwide, Abercrombie and Fitch produces mainly apparel, fragrance and lifestyle goods targeting at consumers aged from 18 to 25. There are 4 sub-brands in AF which are Abercrombie and Fitch, Abercrombie Kids, Hollister and Gilly Hicks. Each sub-brand has its own characteristics and its positioning in the fashion market is slightly different. Abercrombie Fitch is rooted in East Coast traditions and Ivy League heritage, it is the essence of privilege and casual luxury (Abercrombie and Fitch Co. 2012, P. 3). Abercrombie Kids is for the kids who want to be like their older brothers or sisters and the core concept of it is casual and preppy looks. Hollister’s heritage stems from Southern California and was designed to represent cool beach style. Gilly Hicks is the newest and smallest brand in AF made only for the girls’ clothes or underwear. With the opening of a flagship store in Canada in 2005, AF started to enter the global market. Now it has 139 stores outside of the US, and it recently opened stores in Seoul, South Korea and in Shanghai, China to expand into the Asian market. We chose Abercrombie and Fitch since we would like to see how successful this multinational apparel company can be by insisting its All-American style in different cultures. We wanted to explore its unique retail strategy and brand positioning as this brand is sought after a lot of young adult. Several controversial issues of AF were the deciding factor in our choice of company. Work Oriented Culture Of all the methods which exist for explaining cultural differences, â€Å"the dimensional approach is more influential† (Peng Meyer, 2011). Geert  Hostede, a Dutch professor, established the overarching theory consisting of five cultural dimensions. The first is power distance which outlines the expectation and acceptance of the unequal distribution of power by the less powerful members of a country (Peng Meyer, 2011). Individualism vs. collectivism is the cultural dimension characterized by whether the  citizens view themselves as distinctly different or dependent upon group involvement. The third cultural dimension is masculinity vs. femininity which refers to the values, traditional male or female, which are held in the highest regard. Determining the extent to which an individual will embrace uncertain circumstances is the uncertainty avoidance dimension. Finally, long-term orientation deals with the emphasis the citizens place upon â€Å"perseverance and savings fo r future betterment† (Peng Meyer, 2011). The US is the home country of Abercrombie and Fitch. Power Distance Individuality Masculinity/Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term Orientation Scoring a 40 caused the US to be in the lower half of the countries for power distance. Hierarchy is â€Å"established for convenience† (Geert-hofstede.com, 2014) as superiors are easily accessible and communicate informally. Information is free flowing as managers take input form their subordinates. The US received the highest individuality score of 91. Citizens are considered â€Å"the best joiners in the world† (Geert-hofstede.com, 2014). It is not extreme for Americans to work with people with whom they are not familiar as deep friendships are not commonly formed. What an individual is capable of doing or has already done will determine their value of being  hired or promoted. Ranking 15th on the masculinity scale with a score of 62 indicates a masculine nation. US firms create a culture of â€Å"live to work† (Geert-hofstede.com, 2014) where higher status and financial rewards are key driving factors. Leaders which are forceful and decisive are highly valu ed. Employees who are less visible and indecisive are not able to attain success With a score of 46, the US is shown to have a below average uncertainty avoidance. Innovation is extremely valued as new ideas are quickly accepted. As compared to firms in higher uncertainty avoidance countries, US firms will quickly go after new, emerging, and risky opportunities. The US is seventh from the bottom of the list for long-term orientation with a score of 29. While future planning is involved in US firms’ decision making process, quarterly reports are incredibly significant and limit the time firms can look ahead. Employees’ savings rates in countries such as the US are much lower than those in long-term oriented nations. Home Region Oriented Firm Rugman and Verbeke in 2004 established a triad of economic power consisting of Asia, the EU, and North America. Analysis of 380 firms determined how many were home-region oriented, bi-regional, host-region oriented, or global (Rugman Verbeke, 2004). A home-region oriented firm has â€Å"at least 50% of their sales in their home region of the triad† (Rugman Verbeke, 2004). To be a bi-regional company, at least 20% of all sales must take place in two regions, but the company cannot have more than 50% in the region where the company is based. If a firm has more than 50% of its sales in a region different than its home region then the firm is considered host region oriented. In order to be global, a firm must have â€Å"at least 20% of their sales in all three regions of the triad, but less than 50% in any one region† (Rugman Verbeke, 2004). AF is considered a home region oriented company based upon the released date from 2013. Of the $4,116.9 million in sales, 64.59% or $2,659.09 million is generated in the home region, North America. $1,116.78 million or 27.13% of all their sales take place in the EU region. Asia is far behind as the remaining 8.28% of sales, 341.03 thousand dollars, is dispersed across the  rest of the world. No calculations were needed as the sales figures and percentages were given. (Csimarket.com, 2014). The industry for which AF operates can explain their sales distribution. As the company is in the fashion and retail industry, its’ sales are incredibly dependent upon the affinity of the customers for specific brands and styles. Since the company is based in North America, the firm is much more familiar with the prevalent style which would need to be present to increase sales. AF also established itself in their home country before expanding. These factors could explain the firm’s international orientation. Ownership Advantages First, one downstream ownership advantage of AF is the possession of a specific brand image which is not easily imitable. The firm operates under different brands Abercrombie Fitch, Abercrombie Kids, Hollister, and Gill Hicks for slightly different targets. Each sub-brand represents a different brand image but they eventually add up to one big image, â€Å"American Cool†. To the fashion retailers, the most important ownership advantage is their own irreplaceable brand image. In this context, AF has its distinct position in the fashion market and is using their brand image successfully to attract the customers (Abercrombie Fitch Co. 2012, P. 3). Second, the other ownership advantage of AF is its’ in-store experience. AF stimulates the customers’ senses of sight, sound, smell, and touch by utilizing handsome male models, music, fragrances, rich fabrics and interior design. Customers (mainly females) can get a chance to take a photo with the models, and this became a representative in-store experience of AF. In addition to this, AF uses certain perfume to attract customers and to make them remember AF for a longer time than just seeing, which is called â€Å"scent marketing†. Also, the stores always play the video of the American beach to emphasize its â€Å"cool† brand image. AF only sets up the flagship stores and controls them through the managers who are trained in the US and sent to the international flagship stores to monitor the whole operation. This system makes it possible to transfer this in-store experience to the newly established flagship stores very well. Therefore, all AF stores, even those  overseas, are committing the standardized in-store experience by offering customers the same experience (Abercrombie and Fitch Co. 2012, p. 4). Uppsala Model Network Internationalization Model Differences â€Å"The Uppsala model views that market knowledge is gained only by operating directly in a market; thus the model focuses on experimental knowledge† (Childs Jin 2013, p. 38). According to the Uppsala model, will increase their market commitment gradually based upon their experience in the market and based on the knowledge they gain in the market. On the other hand, according to the Network internationalization model, firms can start their internationalization before they enter the market by settling network relationship in advance. Therefore, firms do not have to follow the stages of the Uppsala model but â€Å"building a number of such relationships constitutes a large and important investment, and once established, and organiza tional or ownership advantage† (Vahlne Johanson 2013, p. 195). Uppsala Model Network Internationalization Model Similarities Both models consider the network as important knowledge that firms should gain. The network facilitates information and experience by building up the trust in a relationship and also by learning from other market players. Within the Uppsala model, the core concept of the gradual extension of a company’s internationalization into a market, which gains the company valuable experience, should be based on the interplay with customers, suppliers, and other competitors. As the company’s network broadens, it can get more knowledge and at the same time its degree of internationalization will become higher. In this context, we can find similarity between the two models. International Trajectory In 2005, AF first opened its’ flagship store in Canada. Starting from this, AF entered the European market with opening flagship stores in major cities of the European countries, such as London, Milan, Paris, and Amsterdam. On December 15, 2009, AF opened its first Asian flagship store in Tokyo as a starting point to enter the Asian market. Currently, AF owns 19 flagship stores in Canada, 110 in Europe, and 11 in Asia. Among those stores, 39 are sales subsidiaries. In Canada, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong, AF has wholly-owned subsidiaries because there are DCs in those countries, meaning that they are the most important countries in each continent (Abercrombie   Fitch Co. 2012, PP. 19, 101102). Firms who have a strong brand image and possess asset specificity (a unique product or a unique way of doing business) are more likely to internationalize quickly (Childs Jin, 2013). AF is a good example of this case, so it could skip the lower stages of the Uppsala model, such as s poradic exports or exports through sales agents, and could set up the subsidiaries directly overseas, which only takes 7-9  years. Consequently, now we can assume that the company is already in a quite higher stage of the Uppsala-based stages model with its sales subsidiaries and wholly-owned subsidiaries. Degree and Nature of International Sourcing Abercrombie and Fitch does not own factories producing the products and it has not sourced more than 10% of its merchandise from any single member of its approximately 155 vendors in 20 countries, including the United States, China, Vietnam and Guatemala (Abercrombie Fitch Co. 2012, p. 4). In particular, more than 90% of its suppliers are in Asia (Google.com, 2011). The company has established supplier product quality standards to ensure the high quality of fabrics and other materials used in the company’s products (Abercrombie Fitch Co. 2012, p. 5). Abercrombie and Fitch has two distribution centers (â€Å"DCs†) in New Albany, Ohio. The two DCs were initially responsible for the distribution of merchandise to the stores and direct-toconsumer customers, both regionally and internationally. Since 2009, AF has offshored its DCs by using a third-party DC (TNT Fashion) in Roosendaal, the Netherlands for the distribution of merchandise to stores and direct-to-consumer cust omers located in Europe and a third-party DC in Hong Kong since 2011 for the distribution of merchandise to stores located in Asia. Its two DCs in New Albany, Ohio currently only support its North American stores, and direct-to-consumer customers outside of Europe (Abercrombie Fitch Co. 2012, p. 5). The nature of offshoring the DCs is to broaden the direct-toconsumer business worldwide and facilitate the international expansion of Abercrombie and Fitch stores in Europe and Asia. Furthermore, Abercrombie and Fitch has a strong, cooperative and long-term relationship with its vendor factories. When the CEO Mike Jeffries was asked about the cost pressures from raw materials and labor costs, he emphasized  that a strong relationship with vendors has been key since they had assisted AF and been fair in terms of cotton prices and other increases. He also added that AF and vendors have been there for each other for the long term (Barrie, 2010). Strategic Advantages and Drawbacks of International Sourcing and Offshoring The first advantage of international sourcing is that AF can hedge against the supplier risks. Since AF has relationships with over 100 vendors in 20 countries, it can flexibly switch from one source to another when necessary. AF has the ability to increase its total supply capacity. Even if there are a sudden wave of demand for certain products, having a strong relationship with over 100 vendors will ensure AF a certain supply of products and therefore the supply chain will be more stable (Inboundlogistics.com, 2011). However, such global sourcing strategy also brings some disadvantages. The source of production activity is too dispersed; it is a challenge to find qualified executives who know the local business environment and understand the corporation’s inner workings especially in the Asia Pacific region (Inboundlogistics.com, 2011). We would advise Abercrombie and Fitch to send executives from the US to those countries and hire local managers simultaneously to ensure the production activity smooth. The primary advantage of offshoring is to reduce costs. Offshoring its distribution centers in Europe and Asia can save distribution and transportation costs of merchandise to stores in Europe and Asia. However, if the third-party distribution center in the Netherlands or Hong Kong shuts down suddenly, the distribution of merchandise in Europe and Asia will be totally disrupted. Therefore, AF should leverage the risk by running an additional distribution center in some low-cost countries, such as Vietnam. This move will also support AF’s future expansion. Opportunities and Threats in Vietnam Opportunities Labor cost in Vietnam are absolutely lower than that of China (JETRO, 2011) (NWPC, 2014). See Appendix 1 for figure 1. Government policy to attract FDI (Kim, Lee Cheong, 2011). See AppendixThreats 2.  TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) Cost reduction, lead time reduction, and tax benefit. See Appendix 3 for table 1. Currently only 16% of AF clothes are produced in Vietnam (Google.com, 2011). See Appendix 4 for figure 2. Vietnam has a better status for lead times, infrastructure, and working circumstances than other developing countries (Kim, Lee Cheong, 2011). As AF doesn’t operate their own manufacturing facilities but uses vendors, it can be intense competition among the companies who want to attract vendors in Vietnam. Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka which have lower labor cost than Vietnam are trying to develop their infrastructure and manufacturing conditions to attract vendors. In the future, those undeveloped countries can be a threat to the Vietnam market. Minimum wage in Vietnam is increasing by 15% in 2013, and 17% in 2014 (Vettoretti Huyen, 2013). Suggestions for the Emerging Market We suggest establishing a distribution center (DC) in Vietnam as a strategy to create synergy with the new manufacturing facilities in Vietnam. Currently, many global fashion retailers are trying to generate vertical integration in the emerging markets because they can control the demand fluctuation easily and simplify procurement and administrative procedures eliminating the need to deal with a wide variety of suppliers and distributors. If TPP is concluded, the degree of tariffs will decrease, so it would be better to concentrate on upstream investment in Vietnam. Because emerging markets are not wellorganized and there is more lack of conditions than the developed market, owning a DC will be more stable and protective. Eventually, a DC in Vietnam will create good access to the Asian market. In  overseas developed markets, AF doesn’t own the distribution centers but uses third-party DCs in the Netherlands and Hong Kong. However in Vietnam, we assume that AF would set up a distribution center as a wholly-owned subsidiary. The third-party logistics in outsourcing the whole distribution to a specialized company would reduce the cost. Now AF has only third-party DCs in overseas and there is a threat to be shut down. In order to prevent this situation in advance, owning at least one wholly-owned DC is practical. Because a wholly-owned DC totally controlled by the company, the company can adjust to the demand fluctuation better than a third-party DC. Therefore wholly-owned DC will function as a safety net in a case there is an uncontrollable problem in a third-party DC. Strategic Objectives of Entering China With regard to market seeking, â€Å"China will represent the biggest market potential for our brands,† said Craig Brommers, senior vice president of marketing for AF (Fashionunited.com, 2014). Undoubtedly, China is a huge and growing market with a population of approximately 1.4 billion. Therefore, AF has been trying to locate its potential customers by opening the first flagship store in Shanghai and 8 Hollister stores in different cities since 2012. The company plans to open over 100 new stores under its Hollister and AFs label in China over the next ten years (Fashionunited.com, 2014). With regard to efficiency seeking, there are an abundant suppliers and a low-cost labor force. Specifically, over 60% of its vendors were located in China in 2011 (Google.com, 2011). Also, there has been a distribution center in Hong Kong since 2011. Therefore, AF can achieve lower transportation costs since the delivery is closer to its target markets. Past Foreign Entry Modes Abercrombie and Fitch started its international expansion in London by opening the first overseas flagship store in 2007, and it almost adopted a single foreign entry mode in the last 7 years. AF established a wholly-owned subsidiary when entering a new market, such as the Netherlands, UK, Hong  Kong, Singapore and Japan. However, AF opened its first Hollister store in Dubai in 2013 through a joint venture with Majid Al Futtaim Ventures and an AF flagship store is expected to open in Dubai in 2014 the same way (Majid Al Futtaim Ventures, 2014). For Abercrombie and Fitch, establishing wholly-owned subsidiaries is a better entry mode for international expansion. AF can enjoy full control of the international stores since it pursues an intensely American retail and marketing strategy (Marx, 2010). Therefore, establishing a wholly-owned subsidiary enables AF to integrate the operation of its subsidiaries tightly with itself and to control what the subsidiary should follow. In addition, it takes a lot of efforts to establish an effective relationship in a joint venture and the cultures of the companies may be incompatible. Financially, The parent company can consolidate the results of its wholly-owned subsidiaries into one financial statement (Basu, 2014).Considering that AF is opening more international stores worldwide, the financial reporting would be too complicated if it engages in joint ventures in many different countries. Multinational Strategy Home Replication Stage The multinational strategy of Abercrombie and Fitch closely resembles the home replication strategy. There are several evidences from practice. First of all, the local responsiveness of AF’s international stores is very low. The staff greets shoppers in English, rather than the local language of the foreign countries. This results in foreign customer alienation since some customers will be forced to surface their rusty English during the transaction (Marx, 2010). AF replicates its home country-based competencies such as brand positioning. Sex appeal is a big part of the brand’s charm in the United States; AF also puts this masculine ideal into practice of its international stores. Particularly, many of the male staff members are half-naked in the stores (Marx, 2010). Finally, the implementation of its marketing strategy and operation is easier. The store design and the interior are the same worldwide along with extremely dim lightings, a strong smell of cologne and perf ume and the staff singing or dancing with the  pounding American songs. ‘Real-life’ Social and Environmental Dilemmas A ‘real life’ social dilemma has adversely impacted AF in recent years surrounding its CEO. The official website of the company states the company strives to be â€Å"an inclusive environment that values the differences of its associates and customers† (Anfcareers.com, 2014). While this is the official statement, an interview with the CEO, Mike Jeffries, brought a contrasting view to light. Jeffries identified his target market by claiming, â€Å"a lot of people don’t belong [in our clothes]†¦Are we exclusionary? Absolutely† (Walker, 2014). AF has since released an apology, but boycotts, negative celebrity statements, and petitions were enacted. This issue is an ethical dilemma to the firm because of their strategic place in the clothing market. In order to stay popular, an essence of exclusivity has been built around the brand, since the more exclusive the brand appears, the more interest the brand receives. This has been AF’s approach, but this strategy is not inclusive. The firm had to determine whether to increase their size options or continue with the current productive model. The most important stakeholders for this dilemma are the CEO and those who hold a large portion of AF’s stock. If AF is not able to effectively remedy the situation then the company’s profits will continue to suffer. AF is a public company so their performance directly affects their stock. If the dilemma is not resolved quickly, it could trigger a chain reaction of a loss in profits which leads to lower stock causing several holders of the stock to drop it effectively dropping the value of the stock. The effects of this dilemma could have extremely long lasting repercussions. An environmental issue which has become a dilemma for AF is the implementation of harmful chemicals in their signature fragrances. Within the fragrance Fierce, â€Å"11 secret chemicals that are not listed on the label† (Henricks, Malkan, Shils, 2014) were found that heighten allergic reactions. This particular fragrance caused reactions from various activist groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility, MomsRising, and others which total over 1.5 million people (Henricks, Malkan, Shils, 2014). Utilizing harmful chemicals is an ethical environmental dilemma for AF  because the current formula has generated incredible revenue. The official website of the company addresses large environmental impact areas such as limiting their carbon emissions, but nothing addresses something  which impacts the environmental on this particular scale. If AF is able to hide these chemicals and still gain their desired sales results then it has little motivation to stop acting in this manner. The most important stakeholders surrounding this dilemma are not only the executives and upper management of the company, but also the lowest store employees. A loss in serious sales will affect most employees in a company, but this situation would directly affect individual store employees.Customers may stay away from the stores in order to avoid the negative side effects resulting in a loss of profit and jobs for store employees. Developing a Globally Standardized Strategy Currently, Abercrombie and Fitch already has an established a globally standardized strategy to cope with the selected dilemmas. The strategy is laid out on a website by the company which was created specifically for displaying the considerate side of AF. Covering everything from the sustainability to collaborations to specific policies, AF clearly display their globally standardized strategy to â€Å"ensure that the highest values of human rights are being upheld at our headquarters, in our stores and within our supply chain† (anfcares.org, 2014). AF should have a globally standardized strategy. Even if ethical imperialism is not wise, the specific industry operations call for a globalized solution. Several ethical viewpoints are almost universal for garment manufacturing. Several unethical decisions such as environmental negligence and the use of harmful chemicals have resulted in scandals and dilemmas because of the accessibility of information. For example, the infamous in terview with the CEO was conducted years before it gained notoriety. By having a globally standardized strategy, AF could mitigate potential situations before they arise. The selected dilemmas have global relevance. Inclusion, the principle dealt with in the social dilemma, is incredibly important to a multitude of  cultures across the world. A store in the Netherlands which openly admitted to not wanting homosexual customers would experience a similar backlash. The environment issues also reaches across borders. Asthma, one of the problems which are heightened by the fragrances, is prevalent in â€Å"an estimated 300 million people† (Aaaai.org, 2014). Abercrombie and Fitchs’ Actions Compared to Unilever The actual solutions by AF are not similar to the solutions practiced by Unilever. Both AF and Unilever have explicit codes of conduct and plans to deal with ethical dilemmas which arise. Even though these plans exist, AF has demonstrated that its actions do not always align with their official stance. Unilever’s approach to social impact such as gender equality has been greatly documented, and one of their main goals by 2020 is to â€Å"help more than 1 billion people improve their health well-being† (Vis, 2014). The implementation of this policy is seen as Unilever has helped generate around â€Å"65,000 microentrepreneurs† (Vis, 2014). A stark contrast exists between Unilever’s actions and those of AF. Unlike Unilever, the ultimate actions of AF and their refusal to stock larger size clothing proves the company is dedicated to portraying a positive image without actually helping to make a positive change in society. AF’s actions toward their environmental impact align almost with their actions for social justice. Although its’ official stance is to reduce its environmental footprint, the company has taken no action in light of the protests by environmental groups driven â€Å"to get rid toxic chemicals from the environment† (Lutz, 2013) which are the result of their colognes. Unilever’s approach towards economic longevity has been greatly noted as â€Å"75% sites [send] zero waste to landfill† (Vis, 2014). Unilever’s approach is much more preferable to AF’s approach. From a social standpoint, Unilever’s actions have actively made a beneficial social change as Unilever continues to fulfill their promises. AF continues to ignore their customer’s plight even though the company claims to truly care. From a corporate standpoint, Unilever’s approach is better because many news outlets have cited the company as making a positive chan ge, while AF continues to have controversies resulting in a sales drop of 10%. Overall, Unilever has a much better strategy than AF. Appendix 1 Figure 1: Average Monthly Wage of Asian Countries (Nwpc.dole.gov.ph, 2014) Appendix 2 Improvement of the Vietnam Government Policy on FDI (Kim, Lee and Cheong, 2011) The Vietnam government policy for FDI was dramatically improved by registering into WTO (World Trade Organization) and preparing for PNTR (Permanent Normal Trade Relations). Besides, the government adopted global standards, abolished discrimination of foreigners, and opened the service part such as finance or communication. As a result, FDI into Vietnam broadened to various areas, for example, fabrics, mining, energy, finance, logistic and so on. Especially concluding PNTR between the US made it possible to participating into WTO and encouraged foreing investors to enter into the Vietnam market. Another important change in the policy is related to the modification of legal restrictions or rules. On 1st of July, 2006, the government changed the original law for FDI which had been adapted only to the local people into the newly modified law for FDI which is commonly adapted to the both parts of foreigners a nd local people. This was the effort of the government to create more competitive investment conditions which are changing subject of application, and abolishing double price and repatriation tax. Also the government has been modifying the original business law, investment law, land law, and corporate taxation. References 1) Aaaai.org 2014, Asthma Statistics | AAAAI. [online] Available at:http://www.aaaai.org/about-the aaaai/newsroom/asthma-statistics.aspx [Accessed 14 May. 2014]. 2) Abercrombie and Fitch 2012, Annual report 2012, Abercrombie and Fitch Co., New Albany, Ohio. 3) Anfcareers.com 2014, Abercrombie Fitch Careers. [online] Available at:http://www.anfcareers.com/page/Diversity [Accessed 15 May. 2014]. 4) Anfcares.org 2014, AF Cares Our Strategy. [online] Available at:http://www.anfcares.org/sustainability/environment/strategy.jsp [Accessed 16 May. 2014]. 5) Barrie, L. 2010, Abercrombie Fitch sees opportunities in higher costs. [online] Just-style.com. Available at: http://www.just-style.com/analysis/abercrombie-fitch-sees-opportunities-in-highercosts_id109585.aspx [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 6) Basu, C. 2014, The Advantages Disadvantages of a Wholly Owned Subsidiary. [online] eHow. Available at: http://www.ehow.com/info_8627934_advantages-disadvantages-wholly-ownedsubsidiary.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 7) Childs, M. and Jin, B 2014, Is Uppsala model valid to fashion retailers? An analysis from internationalisation patterns of fast fashion retailers. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 18(1), pp.36 51. 8) Csimarket.com 2014, Abercrombie Fitch Co. (ANF) Jan. 31, 2014 Sales per Country and Region, Annual Report CSIMarket. [online] Available at:http://csimarket.com/stocks/segments_geo.php?code=ANF [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 9) Fashionunited.com 2014, Abercrombie Fitch aims to open 100 stores in China Report Executive. [online] Available at: http://www.fashionunited.com/executive/report/abercrombiefitch-aims-to-open-100-stores-in-china-20142304495372 [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 10 10) Geert-hofstede.com 2014, United States Geert Hofstede. [online] Available at: http://geerthofstede.com/united-states.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 11) Google.com 2011, Abercrombie Fitch Production and Expansion Google Maps. [online] Available at: https://www.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8t=mvpsrc=6oe=UTF8msa=0msid=2073664 88920603185286.0004b07bb7b95fb0f4d6cdg=feature [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 12) Henricks, S., Malkan, S. and Shils, J 2014, Campaign for Safe Cosmetics : Abercrombie Fitch: Stop Spraying Toxic Fragrance!. [online] Safecosmetics.org. Available at: http://safecosmetics.org/article.php?id=739 [Accessed 14 May. 2014]. 13) Inboundlogistics.com 2011, Supply Chain Gain: Global Growth Inbound Logistics. [online] Available at: http://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/supply-chain-gain-global-growth/ [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 14) Kim, T., Lee, J. and Cheong, J 2011, Firm Level Productivity and Survey Results for Korean Firms in Vietnam and Indonesia. KIEP Research Paper No. Policy Analysis-11-22, pp.16-180. 15) Lutz, A 2013, Reasons Why People Hate Abercrombie Fitch. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://www.businessinsider.com/abercrombie-and-fitch-worst-controversies-20138?op=1 [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 16) Majid Al Futtaim Fashion 2014, Hollister to make its Middle East debut in 2013. 17) Marx, W. 2010, In Tokyo, Abercrombie Misses Its Mark. [online] BoF The Business of Fashion. Available at: http://www.businessoffashion.com/2010/02/in-tokyo-abercrombie-misses-itsmark.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 18) Nwpc.dole.gov.ph 2014, Official Website of National Wages and Productivity Commission. [online] Available at: http://www.nwpc.dole.gov.ph/pages/statistics/stat_comparative.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 19) Overseas Research Department Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) 2011, The 21th Comparative Survey of Investment-Related Costs in 31 Major Cities and Regions in Asia and Oceania. p.68. 20) Peng, M. and Meyer, K 2011, International Business. 1st ed. London: Cengage Learning, pp.7276, 363, 458-459. 21) Rugman, A. and Verbeke, A 2004, A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(1), pp.318. 22) The Ohio State University Fisher College of Business 2013, Abercrombie Fitch Equity Research Report. pp.3 4. 23) Vahlne, J. and Johanson, J 2013, The Uppsala model on evolution of the multinational business enterprise – from internalization to coordination of networks. International Marketing Review, 30(3), pp.189 210. 24) Vettoretti, A. and Huyen, H 2013, Vietnam Set to Increase Minimum Wages from December 31, 2013. [online] Available at: http://www.vietnam-briefing.com/news/vietnam-set-to-increaseminimum-wages-from-december-31-2013.html/ [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. 25) Vis, J 2014, Making Progress, Driving Change. 26) Walker, J 2014, Abercrombie Fitch: Sorry!. [online] The Huffington Post. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/23/abercrombie-and-fitch-apology_n_3323668.html [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The Story of an Hour Essay -- American Literature Kate Chopin Feminism

The Story of an Hour 'The Story of an Hour' is one of Kate Chopin's most famous short stories. There is a great deal of marital instability in the story by Chopin because most of her well-known stories and novels deal with a woman who wishes for freedom or a marriage that is out of balance. In 'The Story of an Hour,' Chopin deals with an ironical twist; it is that the wife in the story, Louise Mallard, does not realize she is displeased with her marriage until she is told that her husband has been killed in a train accident. For an hour, Louise believes her husband's death and sets about planning her future in her mind; when she discovers the rumor of his death is not true, she dies of a heart problem at the end. The common argument in the story is that whether Louise dies of happiness or sadness about her husband's news. There are many ironies, echoes and foreshadowing occur throughout the story such as weeping, celebrating and dying. The theme appears one way, but in actuality, it means another way. Kate Chopin uses Louise Mallard to reflect events and feelings in her own personal life in 'The Story of an Hour.' An online informative article 'Kate Chopin: The Woman' gives detail that Kate Chopin was born in St. Louis on February 8, 1850. Her father, Thomas O'Flaherty, who was very successful in many business ventures, got killed in a work-related accident when Kate was only five years old. Her mother, Katherine O'Flaherty never remarried after her husband's death. Her grandmother and great-grandmother had also been a widow at very young age and never remarried. Her father left behind a family of four generations of women all living in the same house ('Kate'). The article goes on to mention that when Kate wa... ... Chopin, Kate. ?The Story of an Hour.? Current Issues and Enduring Question: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. Boston: Bedford, 2002. 444-45. ?Kate Chopin: The Woman.? Angelfire. 13 Nov. 2003 . Ker, Christina. ?Ahead of Her Time: An Overview of the Life and Work of Kate Chopin.? Empirezine. 25 Nov. 2003 . Rutherford, Candice. ? Kate Chopin?s ?The Story of an Hour. HotBot. 26 Nov. 2003 . Ryan, Steven. ?Depression and Chopin?s Story of an Hour.? 2002. Questia. 30 Nov. 2003 . Stipe, Stormy. ?The Book that Ruined Kate Chopin?s Career.? InfoTrac OneFile. Gale. (Jan.1999). NCLive. 1 Dec. 2003 .

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Nobel Prize Winner: James Watson

Among the most notable and controversial Nobel Prize recipients is James Watson. He, together with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1962 in the Physiology or Medicine category. He is one of the scientists who discovered the molecular structure of the DNA which is hailed as one of the great breakthroughs in the field of Sciences.James Dewey Watson was born on April 6, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois. In his early life, he was said to be fond of bird-gazing together with his father. When he was 12 years old, he was part of the famous radio show entitled Quiz Kids, a game which challenged young students to a quiz contest. At the age of 15, Watson entered the University of Chicago with the help of the then liberal policy of Robert Hutchins, the University president. In 1946, his interest in the field of science changed from his former concern on ornithology to genetics after he had read What Is Life? by Erwin Schrodinger. In 1947, he received his Bache lor’s degree in Zoology from the same university.Among Watson’s foremost influences was Salvador Luria, also a Nobel Prize winner. He was engrossed to the latter’s work which exposed him on the nature of genetic mutations. In the first months of 1948, Watson started to pursue his Ph.D. research at Indiana University at Luria’s laboratory. He was able to meet with another Nobel Prize recipient Max Delbruck. Delbruck and Luria were the pioneers of the Phage Group, a movement of geneticists who underwent studies and researches on microbial genetics.Eventually, Watson was also able to work with the group as a working scientist. His experience with the Phage group opened up his scientific knowledge on the nature and structure of genes. In order to develop his knowledge about the components of a gene, he took a course with another scientist Feliz Haurowitz in 1949 in which he was able to gain the conventional views on genes such as genes were proteins and vice versa; that genes have the capacity to replicate themselves; and other scientific data about the DNA.But through with all those knowledge, Watson was also fascinated with the work of Oswald Avery explaining that DNA was indeed the genetic molecule. Towards his doctoral studies, he underwent X-rays researches which attempted to de-motivate bacterial viruses. In 1950, he received his Ph.D. in Zoology at Indiana University.To be able to enhance more his knowledge on genetics and genetic composition, Watson went to Europe to pursue a postdoctoral study. He stayed at the laboratory in Copenhagen owned by a biochemist named Herman Kalckar whose studies were also linked with the nucleic acids. Through his stay with Kalckar’s laboratory, he was able to conduct experiments with another member of the Phage group, Ole Maaloe.The latter’s studies and researches were concerned on the DNA and the earlier supposition that it is the genetic molecule. In a meeting in Italy where he acc ompanied Kalckar, he met Maurice Wilkins who was also a devoted geneticist. In an event, Wilkins had shown Watson an X-ray diffraction data for DNA (which was originally worked out by Rosalind Franklin). After seeing the X-ray, he came to a conclusion that DNA had a distinct structure. Watson attempted to discover this through his experimental research done in different universities.Watson came to a decision to be familiar with performing X-ray diffraction experiments for the reason that such undertaking would lead him to a more probable and easier discovery of the DNA structure (He was inspired by Linus Pauling who was able to publish the protein alpha helix model with his unremitting efforts in undergoing X-ray experiments on molecular model.In 1951, Watson, together with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, started to work out a series of experimental researches using Franklin’s X-ray findings on DNA structure. A controversy was said to occur during the period of experimenta l researches among Watson, Crick and Wilkins for the reason that they were using Franklin’s data and findings without the latter’s knowledge and consent.To further study Franklin’s X-ray findings, Watson attended one of Franklin’s seminar by which she explained how she obtained her findings on the DNA structure. Originally, Franklin claimed that the DNA was structured in helix-form. With this, Watson had started again to construct a molecular model but in the end it was criticize by Franklin by saying that the phosphate backbones must not be in the inside but on the outside.Eager to finish their attempt, the two used Franklin’s observations in their ultimate attempt to arrive at the DNA structure model. However, 1951, the absolute details of the chemical structure of the backbone of the DNA were identified by Alexander Todd, a biochemist. With that, Watson and Crick were asked to stop working with the DNA structure in 1952. Yet the two had never co mpletely put aside their desire to come up with the DNA structure model.After numerous trips which exposed Watson and Crick to different methods and experimental systems that could help them in their account on DNA structure model, they were again asked to continue working on the DNA structural model by the then laboratory director Maurice Wilkins. Through the years, Franklin’s findings progresses and even developed.   The two, again, used Franklin’s findings in their experimental research on the DNA structure.The most outstanding contribution of Watson in the entire pursuit of the structural model of the DNA was his discovery of the nucleotide base pairs. These base pairs are said to be the chief answer in solving the structure and function of the DNA. Watson used the Pauling tradition, which he was formerly exposed.On February 1953, Watson worked out a molecule model which used a straight periphery, and exacto blade, white cardboard and adhesive. He made the molecu les flat in their loop so that he could slide the cardboard models and inspect how they work. Through such improvised models, Watson saw that the bigger two ring (A and G nucleobase; also referred as the purines) could be matched with a lesser one ring (T and C nucleobases; also referred as the pyrimidines).Watson hypothesized if the tow pairs could be paired through a hydrogen bond which he discovered possible. He then observed that the two pairs could be placed over on each other with alike general configuration. To elaborate, the hexagonal rings were central and the comparative courses of the five-member rings of A and G were the identical.   Watson perceived that numerous members were falling into place such that he regarded it as the answer. He was right for formulating such conclusion. Watson’s discovery of the base pairs was unswerving with what Chargaff, also a biochemist, had already worked out.Not so long that Watson and Crick had completed their experimental rese arch on the structural model of DNA by concluding the double helix form of the DNA. They presented their findings through a journal entitled Nature. With this great discovery, Watson and his co-scientists Crick and Wilkins were given the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their discovery of the structure of nucleic acids.Nevertheless, as mentioned earlier the controversy involving the original works of Franklin had put the three Nobel Prize Awardees in so much criticisms primarily with their failure to acknowledge the contribution of Franklin. But Watson took the courage to clarify the issue and appraise Franklin’s involvement in the discovery of the DNA structural model. In 1968, he published a book entitled The Double-Helix which explained his team’s side regarding the controversy with Franklin.He clarified that it was not intentional to bypass Franklin all throughout their achievements. He said that Franklin was really one of the persons who gave him the impetus to strive hard er and make him more careful in analyzing his experimental research on DNA structure.   In the end, his team included Franklin as one of the most important persons behind the success of their structural model of DNA.Watson’s published book made the public realize how scientists like him undergo so much hardships for the sake of scientific discoveries which can really aid the entire mankind in uplifting the quality of their lives. He had proven that with great effort and outstanding sacrifice, anyone could victoriously achieve his or her goals.Watson did not stop his scientific endeavors with his Nobel Prize award. He worked with the Genome Project in 1988 which he held up until 1992.References:Hamilton, J. (2004). James Watson: Solving the Mystery of DNA (Nobel Prize-Winning  Ã‚   Scientists). Enslow Publishers.Watson, J. D. (2001). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Structure of DNA (First ed.). Touchstone. Nobel prize winner: james watson Among the most notable and controversial Nobel Prize recipients is James Watson. He, together with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1962 in the Physiology or Medicine category. He is one of the scientists who discovered the molecular structure of the DNA which is hailed as one of the great breakthroughs in the field of Sciences.James Dewey Watson was born on April 6, 1928 in Chicago, Illinois. In his early life, he was said to be fond of bird-gazing together with his father. When he was 12 years old, he was part of the famous radio show entitled Quiz Kids, a game which challenged young students to a quiz contest. At the age of 15, Watson entered the University of Chicago with the help of the then liberal policy of Robert Hutchins, the University president. In 1946, his interest in the field of science changed from his former concern on ornithology to genetics after he had read What Is Life? by Erwin Schrodinger. In 1947, he received his Bache lor’s degree in Zoology from the same university.Among Watson’s foremost influences was Salvador Luria, also a Nobel Prize winner. He was engrossed to the latter’s work which exposed him on the nature of genetic mutations. In the first months of 1948, Watson started to pursue his Ph.D. research at Indiana University at Luria’s laboratory. He was able to meet with another Nobel Prize recipient Max Delbruck. Delbruck and Luria were the pioneers of the Phage Group, a movement of geneticists who underwent studies and researches on microbial genetics. Eventually, Watson was also able to work with the group as a working scientist.His experience with the Phage group opened up his scientific knowledge on the nature and structure of genes. In order to develop his knowledge about the components of a gene, he took a course with another scientist Feliz Haurowitz in 1949 in which he was able to gain the conventional views on genes such as genes were proteins and vice versa; that genes have the capacity to replicate themselves; and other scientific data about the DNA. But through with all those knowledge, Watson was also fascinated with the work of Oswald Avery explaining that DNA was indeed the genetic molecule. Towards his doctoral studies, he underwent X-rays researches which attempted to de-motivate bacterial viruses. In 1950, he received his Ph.D. in Zoology at Indiana University.To be able to enhance more his knowledge on genetics and genetic composition, Watson went to Europe to pursue a postdoctoral study. He stayed at the laboratory in Copenhagen owned by a biochemist named Herman Kalckar whose studies were also linked with the nucleic acids. Through his stay with Kalckar’s laboratory, he was able to conduct experiments with another member of the Phage group, Ole Maaloe.The latter’s studies and researches were concerned on the DNA and the earlier supposition that it is the genetic molecule. In a meeting in Italy where he ac companied Kalckar, he met Maurice Wilkins who was also a devoted geneticist. In an event, Wilkins had shown Watson an X-ray diffraction data for DNA (which was originally worked out by Rosalind Franklin). After seeing the X-ray, he came to a conclusion that DNA had a distinct structure. Watson attempted to discover this through his experimental research done in different universities.Watson came to a decision to be familiar with performing X-ray diffraction experiments for the reason that such undertaking would lead him to a more probable and easier discovery of the DNA structure (He was inspired by Linus Pauling who was able to publish the protein alpha helix model with his unremitting efforts in undergoing X-ray experiments on molecular model.In 1951, Watson, together with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, started to work out a series of experimental researches using Franklin’s X-ray findings on DNA structure. A controversy was said to occur during the period of experiment al researches among Watson, Crick and Wilkins for the reason that they were using Franklin’s data and findings without the latter’s knowledge and consent. To further study Franklin’s X-ray findings, Watson attended one of Franklin’s seminar by which she explained how she obtained her findings on the DNA structure.Originally, Franklin claimed that the DNA was structured in helix-form. With this, Watson had started again to construct a molecular model but in the end it was criticize by Franklin by saying that the phosphate backbones must not be in the inside but on the outside. Eager to finish their attempt, the two used Franklin’s observations in their ultimate attempt to arrive at the DNA structure model. However, 1951, the absolute details of the chemical structure of the backbone of the DNA were identified by Alexander Todd, a biochemist. With that, Watson and Crick were asked to stop working with the DNA structure in 1952. Yet the two had never completely put aside their desire to come up with the DNA structure model.After numerous trips which exposed Watson and Crick to different methods and experimental systems that could help them in their account on DNA structure model, they were again asked to continue working on the DNA structural model by the then laboratory director Maurice Wilkins. Through the years, Franklin’s findings progresses and even developed.   The two, again, used Franklin’s findings in their experimental research on the DNA structure.The most outstanding contribution of Watson in the entire pursuit of the structural model of the DNA was his discovery of the nucleotide base pairs. These base pairs are said to be the chief answer in solving the structure and function of the DNA. Watson used the Pauling tradition, which he was formerly exposed.On February 1953, Watson worked out a molecule model which used a straight periphery, and exacto blade, white cardboard and adhesive. He made the mole cules flat in their loop so that he could slide the cardboard models and inspect how they work. Through such improvised models, Watson saw that the bigger two ring (A and G nucleobase; also referred as the purines) could be matched with a lesser one ring (T and C nucleobases; also referred as the pyrimidines).Watson hypothesized if the tow pairs could be paired through a hydrogen bond which he discovered possible. He then observed that the two pairs could be placed over on each other with alike general configuration. To elaborate, the hexagonal rings were central and the comparative courses of the five-member rings of A and G were the identical.   Watson perceived that numerous members were falling into place such that he regarded it as the answer. He was right for formulating such conclusion. Watson’s discovery of the base pairs was unswerving with what Chargaff, also a biochemist, had already worked out.Not so long that Watson and Crick had completed their experimental re search on the structural model of DNA by concluding the double helix form of the DNA. They presented their findings through a journal entitled Nature. With this great discovery, Watson and his co-scientists Crick and Wilkins were given the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their discovery of the structure of nucleic acids.Nevertheless, as mentioned earlier the controversy involving the original works of Franklin had put the three Nobel Prize Awardees in so much criticisms primarily with their failure to acknowledge the contribution of Franklin. But Watson took the courage to clarify the issue and appraise Franklin’s involvement in the discovery of the DNA structural model. In 1968, he published a book entitled The Double-Helix which explained his team’s side regarding the controversy with Franklin. He clarified that it was not intentional to bypass Franklin all throughout their achievements. He said that Franklin was really one of the persons who gave him the impetus to strive h arder and make him more careful in analyzing his experimental research on DNA structure.   In the end, his team included Franklin as one of the most important persons behind the success of their structural model of DNA.Watson’s published book made the public realize how scientists like him undergo so much hardships for the sake of scientific discoveries which can really aid the entire mankind in uplifting the quality of their lives. He had proven that with great effort and outstanding sacrifice, anyone could victoriously achieve his or her goals.Watson did not stop his scientific endeavors with his Nobel Prize award. He worked with the Genome Project in 1988 which he held up until 1992.References:Hamilton, J. (2004). James Watson: Solving the Mystery of DNA (Nobel Prize-Winning  Ã‚  Ã‚   Scientists). Enslow Publishers.Watson, J. D. (2001). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Structure of DNA (First ed.). Touchstone.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Poem Analysis Allen Ginsbergs Howl - 2277 Words

Interpreting Howl Interpreting Howl The world is holy! The soul is holy! The skin is holy! The nose is holy! The tongue and cock and hand and asshole holy! Everything is holy! everybodys holy! everywhere is holy! everyday is an eternity! Everymans an angel! The bums as holy as the seraphim! the madman is holy as you my soul are holy!...Holy the groaning saxophone! Holy the bop apocalypse! Holy the jazzbands marijuana hipsters peace junk drums! ~Footnote to Howl by Allen Ginsberg Poet Allen Ginsberg composed Howl in 1955 and it was published by City Lights Books of San Francisco, CA the following year. He composed the poem in the middle of the 1950s, one of the greatest decades in history for mainstream America. It had been a decade since the American and Allied victory in the second world war. Numerous American men returned home to a country in much better shape than expected, with many women having entered the workforce to keep the economy and industry alive in their absence. The spoils of war were great and America saw a great era of prosperity and domestic, suburban bliss. More interstate highways were constructed. Many more cars were produced and bought. It was a classic era for mainstream American culture in the 1950s. Yet in the haze of the suburbs, expansion of television, growth of Hollywood, and cars, present here were the seeds of rebellion and counterculture that was more indicative of the following decade, 1960 s. One such seed is the poemShow MoreRelatedAllen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California Literary Analysis1669 Words   |  7 PagesJasamyn Wimmer English 1B Professor Kleinman 5 March 2013 Brief Literary Analysis Lost America: An analysis of â€Å"A Supermarket in California† Allen Ginsberg; philosopher, activist, poet, a man highly revered as a groundbreaking figure between the 1950’s Beat Poetry Generation and the counter-cultural revolution of the 1960’s (poetryarchive.org). 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